Compulsory Licensing in Eighteen Middle-Income Countries

This study provides an analysis of provisions related to compulsory licensing (CL); it was created to assess their utility and potential impact on access to health products in 18 middle-income countries (MIC).1 This study was based on the work of community-based activists.
This study presents a selection of the most significant provisions, by country, in the following three areas:
1. The type of legal mechanisms that exist for granting CL;
2. The scope and grounds provided to issue CLs;
3. The conditions required to request, issue and implement CLs.
This study also provides a summary of ideal provisions to include in laws and regulations, and problematic trends in CL legislation and procedures.

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